Shivaji Exhibition preview

24 02 2008

A Hero for Modern India :

CHHATRAPATI SHIVAJI MAHARAJ

Is there a greater hero, a greater saint, a greater bhakta and a greater king than Shivaji? Shivaji was the very embodiment of a born ruler of men as typified in our great Epics. He was the type of the real son of India representing the true consciousness of the nation. It was he who showed what the future of India is going to be sooner or later, a group of independent units under one umbrella as it were, under one supreme imperial suzerainty. Swami Vivekananda

This exhibition will show the unique place of Chhatrapati Shivaji in the history of India, at a time when Hindus were experiencing great oppression and humiliation : they were being killed, their wives and children taken in slavery, their temples were being broken, and they were being discriminated against in various forms, such as in the matter of charging custom duties, restrictions on their fairs and festivals, their dismissal from government posts, large-scale conversions as a part of openly declared policy of the Mughal State, imposition of the religious tax Jiziya for being a Hindu.. These discriminatory acts were then going almost unchallenged, although the Hindus formed more than 90% of the country at that time.

Shivaji, who was endowed with talents of the highest order and a clear vision, was the only one who stood-up to the injustice. He had also an inspiring and endearing personalitywhich spontaneously commanded respect, loyalty and the highest sacrifices from his devoted soldiery and peasants. To create his Swarajya, a bold mission, inspired by the highest ideals imbibed by him from his mother and the saints of Maharasthra, he had to rouse the sleeping conscience of the Hindus, and show them that it was possible to successfully defy the Mughal power, cast off foreign domination and win freedom from the rule of the Muslim powers.

He had however to contend with Aurangzeb, one of the ablest, but also the most cruel of all Mughal Emperors. In the present exhibition attempt has been made to present, through paintings, sketches, line drawings and contemporary documents, the unique role that Chhatrapati Shivaji has played not only in the history of India, but also in the preservation of Her culture and spirituality, as he stood against the enemy that wanted to erase it forever from this land. It is, thanks to Shivaji, for instance, that West and South India could retain their identities. Indeed, Marathis and Tamils alike, owe to the great Shivaji and the sacrifices of his men, the enduring wholesomeness of their traditions – social, cultural and religious – whereas the same cannot be said about the North of India. Indeed, except for some parts of the non-Kashmir Himalayas, the rest of India had to bear the rules and directions of the Shariat, which had evolved in far off Arabia during 7th and 8th centuries, and was sought to be imposed in the 17th century with all its inherent vehemence, by an Emperor entirely committed to its principles and philosophy.

This exhibition is relevant today because Shivaji embodied all the qualities that politicians should possess in 21st century India, but do not always have: he was just, firm and stood for the weak; he was an honest and able administrator; he confronted the enemy and was not cowed into submission; he was devoted to Mother India who appeared to him as Bhavani (Exhibit no 5); he was ruthless with his enemies, but spared women, children and his own people ; he would go to both Muslim and Hindu saints and endowed mosques as well as temples.

This wonderful show on India’s eternal hero is brought to Mumbai by FACT, an organization, which is non-political, non-religious and non-affiliated to any group.

Let the spirit of Shivaji float on India again and deliver Her from Her present enemies.

Shivaji was born on 10th April 1627, to Sahaji and his wife, Jijabai, in the Shivneri Fort, situated almost 60 km to the north of Pune. He was named as Shiva, after the local Goddess Shivai, to whom his mother Jijabai had prayed for a son. After being defeated by the combined forces of the Mughals and Adil Shah, Sahaji was offered a jagir near the present-day Bangalore. However, he was allowed to keep his holdings in Pune. So, Sahaji left his son Shivaji to manage the Pune holdings, under the care of his mother Jijabai.

With a small council of ministers, Shivaji began managing his estate. His ministers included Shamrao Nilkanth as Peshwa, Balkrishna Pant as Muzumdar, Raghunath Ballal as Sabnis and Sonopant as Dabir. At the same time, Kanhoji Jedhe and Baji Pasalkar were appointed to look after Shivaji’s training. In the year 1644, Shivaji undertook full administrative responsibilities of his estate. Thus was started his career as an independent young prince of a small kingdom. His mother, Jijabai, was instrumental in instilling in Shivaji’s mind a love for independence and distaste for external political domination.

At the age of 16, he took a pledge to establish a sovereign Hindu state. Soon after, he performed his first heroic, when he seized the Torna fort of Adil Shihi kingdom of Bijapur kingdom. By 1647, he had gained control over Kondana and Rajgad forts, with complete power of the Pune region. With time, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj secured the forts in the Western Ghats as well as those along the Konkan coast. Shivaji also fought against the army of Adilshah at Purandhar. In November 1659, he fought the battle of Pratapgarh and defeated Afzal Khan. Immediately after this success, King Shivaji occupied the area stretching upto the Panhala fort.

The battle of Kolhapur took place in December 1659. In the battle, Shivaji crushed the army of Bijapuri general, Rustam-ji-zaman. In 1660, Siddi Johar’s huge and daunting army attacked him at Panhala fort. Shivaji managed to escape from the fort (Exhibit no 8). However, he soon launched an attack on Siddi Johar. The result was the surrender of Panhala and a truce between Shivaji and Adilshah. After the death of Adilshah, Aurangzeb attacked Golconda and Bijapur. Shivaji used guerilla-style tactics and captured more and more of the Bijapuri and Mughal territories. However, by 1663, he had lost most of his conquests to the Mughal army.

In the next few years, Shivaji again started seizing forts belonging to both Mughals as well as those of Bijapur. Aurangzeb sent Jai Singh, his Hindu general, to subdue Shivaji. Shivaji thought it wise to conclude a treaty with Jai Singh at Purander in 1665 (Exhibit no 14) and also agreed to visit Agra. However, in 1666, he made a daring escape (Exhibit no 25) from Agra and lay low for the next few years. But in January 1670, Shivaji launched an attack on Mughal garrisons in Maharashtra. Within a period of six months, he won back most of his lost empire. The period of 1670 to 1674 was spent by Shivaji Maharaj in expanding his empire at the cost of the Mughals.

The heroic deeds of Shivaji cannot be all recounted here, as on numerous occasions, he set before others examples of courage and resourcefulness, such as his dangerous encounter with Afzal Khan in1659 (Exhibit no 7), or in his night attack on Shaista Khan in Pune in 1663 (Exhibit no 23). One could also speak of self-respec,t such as by his proud and dignified conduct at Agra in the proudest Court of that time, of nobility, such as restoring to honourable freedom a captured young beautiful Muslim lady brought as booty (Exhibit no 43), of great vision, such as in building a chain of mountain and sea forts (Exhibit no 58), of humility when in the company of saints like Tuka Ram (Exhibit no 62) and Samarth Swami Ram Das (Exhibit no 65), of extraordinary administrative ability which found expression in his sound civil and military institutions, and of a truly good Hindu ruler in whose kingdom subjects belonging to all religions had freedom and honour.

Shivaji’s Karnataka campaign of 1677, his grand reception in Hyderabad, occupation of Jinji fort (Exhibit no 48) and his presence at Vellore, adoption of the title of Chhatrapati by him after the coronation ceremony in 1674, use of Sanskrit terms for the designation of officials, his attempt to secure for his people the same advantage on the high seas as enjoyed by the Europeans, and the fact that he was the only Hindu ruler who not only could successfully defy the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb but also found a large independent Kingdom by his own courage and ability despite all odds, and left behind him noble examples and traditions which serve as source of inspiration and guidance even today.

In June 1674 at the Raigad fort, he was given the title of Kshatriya Kulavantas Simhasanadheeshwar Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. The end of 1676 saw Shivaji commencing attacks in the southern parts of India. Shivaji breathed his last on 3rd April 1680 in the Raigad fort, the capital for Maratha Empire. He was succeeded by his elder son, Sambhaji.

The legacy that he left is astounding. He raised a strong army and navy, constructed and repaired forts, used guerrilla warfare tactics, developed a strong intelligence network, gave equal treatment to the people from all religions and castes based on merit, and functioned like a seasoned Statesman and General. He appointed ministers with specific functions such as Internal security, Foreign affairs, Finance, Law and Justice, Religious matters, Defence etc.

He introduced systems in revenue collection and warned the officials against harassment of subjects. He thought ahead of times and was a true visionary. In his private life, his moral virtues were exceptionally high. His thoughts and deeds were inspired by the teachings of his mother Jijabai, teacher Dadaji Konddev, great saints like Dnyaneshwar & Tukaram and the valiancy and ideals of the Lords Rama and Krishna.

The tiny kingdom established by Chhatrapati Shivaji known as “Hindavi Swaraja” (Sovereign Hindu state) grew and spread beyond Attock in Northwest India (now in Pakistan) and beyond Cuttack in East India in course of time, to become the strongest power in India. After the death of Chhatrapati Shivaji & his son Sambhaji, their prime ministers or ‘the Peshwas’ became the defacto rulers. The Peshwas and the Maratha Sardars (Chieftans) like Shindes of Gwalior, Gaekwads of Baroda & Holkars of Indore contributed to the growth of the Maratha Confederacy.

We hope that you will enjoy this exhibition and that it will remain with you, your family and children as a source of inspiration, as an example to follow in your daily life, of courage, daring, forthrightness, dedication to your motherland, spirit of seva, that India may rise again, under the leadership of one who would incarnate in himself the virtues of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, and thus truly become THE SHIVAJI OF MODERN INDIA.





A Hero for Modern India Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj

24 02 2008

vk/kqfud Hkkjr ds fy;s vkn’kZ egk uk;d N=ifr f’kokth egkjkt

^^D;k f’kokth ls Hkh c<+dj egkuk;d] muls Js”V HkDr vFkok ‘kkld gks ldrk gS\ f’kokth gekjs egku~ egkdkO;ksa ds tuekul esa izfrf”Br pfj=ksa ds leku Fks A os Hkkjrekrk ds vkn’kZ iq= vkSj jk”Vªh; psruk ds fo’kq) izfrfcEc Fks A mUgksaus yksxksa dks ;g crk;k fd vkus okys le; esa] tYn ;k nsj ls Hkh Hkkjr dk Lo:i D;k gksxk & ,d dsUnzh; ‘kfDr ds vUrxZr Lora= bdkbZ;ksa dk la?k**& Lokeh foosdkuUn

bl iznf’kZuh ds ek/;e ls Hkkjr ds bfrgkl esa f’kokth ds fof’k”B LFkku dks n’kkZus dk iz;kl fd;k x;k gS A ;g og le; Fkk tc fgUnqvksa ij ?kksj vR;kpkj gks jgs Fks] mUgsa vius gh ns’k esa vieku lguk iM+ jgk Fkk] mudh fL=;ksa dh lqj{kk lqfuf’pr ugh Fkh] mUgs xqyke cuk;k tk jgk Fkk] muds eafnj rksM+s tk jgs Fks] muds lkFk vusd izdkj dk HksnHkko cjrk tk jgk Fkk] muds /kkfeZd ioksZ o R;kSgkjksa ij ikcUnh yxk nh xbZ Fkh] eqx+y ‘kklu dh fgUnqvksa dks eqlyeku cukus dh uhfr ij [kqydj vey gks jgk Fkk] mu ij /kkfeZd dj ftft+;k yxk fn;k x;k Fkk vkSj ;g lc dqN gksrs gq, Hkh bldk [kqydj fojks/k djus dk dksbZ lkgl ugh tqVk ik jgk Fkk] tcfd ns’k esa fgUnqvksa dh la[;k 90% ls Hkh vf/kd Fkh A

,sls fodV le; esa f’kokth us] ftuesa vn~Hkqr ;ksX;rk vkSj nwjnf’kZrk Fkh] bl vU;k; iw.kZ O;ogkj ds fo:) la?k”kZ djus dk chM+k mBk;k ¼izn’kZ la- 3½ A f’kokth dk ,slk vn~Hkqr O;fDrRo Fkk fd lHkh NksVs&cM+s] lSfud&vlSfud] ifjfpr&vifjfpr muds iz’kald cu tkrs Fks vkSj muesa f’kokth ds izfr fu”Bk Lor% gh tkx`r gks tkrh Fkh A ^^LojkT;** LFkkfir djus ds vius dfBu mn~ns’; ds fy, mUgsa viuh ekrk thtkckbZ o larks ls izsj.kk izkIr gqbZ Fkh] ijUrq blds fy;s ;g vko’;d Fkk fd os fgUnqvksa dh lqIr vkRek o [kks, fo’okl dks txkosa vkSj mUgsa fn[kknsa fd eqx+yksa dh ‘kfDr dk lQyrkiwoZd izfrjks/k fd;k tk ldrk gS vkSj fonsf’k;ksa ds izHkqRo o eqfLye ‘kfDr;ksa ds fu;a=.k ls eqfDr gkfly dh tk ldrh gS A

f’kokth dks eqx+y ckn’kkgksa esa lcls ;ksX; ijUrq lkFk gh lcls dqfVy ‘kkld ls VDdj ysuh iM+h A bl izn’kZuh esa jax&fp=ksa] Ldsp] js[kkfp=ksa] ledkyhu nLrkost+kas o mu ij vk/kkfjr ys[kksaa ds ek/;e ls f’kokth dh Hkkjrh; bfrgkl esa vf}rh; Hkwfedk n’kkZus dk iz;Ru fd;k x;k gS vkSj og Hkwfedk Hkh ,sls le; esa Fkh tc os vdsys gh mu fouk’kdkjh izo`fRr;ksa ds f[kykQ tqV x, ftudk mn~ns’; Hkkjr dh lH;rk vkSj vk/;kfRedrk dks lnSo ds fy, feVk nsuk Fkk A okLro esa f’kokth dks gh bl ckr dk Js; tkrk gS fd if’peh o nf{k.k Hkkjr viuh igpku cpk ik, vkSj ejkBh o rkfey nksuksa gh bl ckr ds fy;s f’kokth o muds lSfudksa ds cfynku ds _.kh gS ftudh otg ls mudh le`) lkekftd] lkaLd`frd o /kkfeZd ijEijk,Wa cp ldha A mRrjh Hkkjr ds cM+s Hkkx ds ckjs esa ;g ckr ugha dgh tk ldrh tgkW 7oha&8oha ‘krkCnh esa vjc ns’k esa fu/kkZfjr ‘kfjvr ds funsZ’kksa dks Hkkjr esa 17 oha ‘krkCnh esa Fkksius dk iz;kl ,d ,sls ckn’kkg }kjk fd;k x;k tks blds n’kZu vkSj fl)kUrksa dk v{kj{k ikyu djus esa gh viuk /keZ ekurk Fkk A

;g izn’kZuh bl dkj.k Hkh le;ksfpr gS D;ksafd f’kokth esa os lc xq.k Fks tks bDdhloha ‘krkCnh ds Hkkjr es jktusrkvksa esa gksus pkfg;sa] vkSj ftudk vusd ckj muesa vHkko fn[kkbZ nsrk gS A f’kokth U;k;fiz;] nz.k fu’p;h vkSj fucZyksa ds j{kd Fks A os ;ksX; o bZekunkj iz’kkld Fks] os ‘k=q ds lkeus >qdus ds ctk; mldk lkeuk djrs Fks] os Hkkjr ekrk ds ije HkDr Fks] ftlesa mUgsa ekWa Hkokuh dk vkHkkl gksrk Fkk ¼izn’kZ la- 5½] os ‘k=q ds lkFk dBksj Fks ijUrq vU; ds lkFk] fo’ks”kdj fL=;ksa o cPpks ds izfr cgqr lân; Fks] os ladh.kZ /kkfeZd Hkkouk ls xzflr ugh Fks cfYd nksuks gh /keksZ ds lUrksa ds n’kZu ds fy, tkrs Fks vkSj fcuk fdlh HksnHkko ds efUnjks o efLtnksa ds j[kj[kko ds fy;s leqfpr O;oLFkk djrs Fks A

Hkkjr ds bl vuU; tu uk;d ds thou ds ckjs esa ;g izn’kZuh eqEcbZ QsDV }kjk vk;ksftr dh tk jgh gS A QsDV laLFkk u gh jktuhfr vkSj u gh fdlh /keZ vFkok xqV ls tqM+h gS A izkFkZuk gS fd f’kokth dh Hkkouk o ifo= vkRek iqu% Hkkjr esa Iyoeku gks vkSj ns’k dh mlds ‘k=qvksa ls j{kk djsa A

f’kokth dk tUe 10 vizy 1627 bZ- dks f’kousfj nqxZ ¼iq.ks ls 60 fdeh- mRrj½ esa gqvk Fkk A muds firk ‘kkgth Hkksalys o ekrk thtkckbZ us mudk uke f’kokth j[kk D;ksafd iq= izkfIr ds fy, mUgksaus LFkkuh; nsoh f’kokbZ ls izkFkZuk dh Fkh A ‘kkgth igys vgen uxj o ckn esa chtkiqj esa cM+s lkeUr jgs Fks A mudh tkxhj esa iwuk o caxyksj vkfn Fks A f’kokth o thtkckbZ iwuk dh tkxhj dh O;oLFkk laHkkyus ;gka vk x, A

vkjEHk esa ,d NksVs ls ^eaf=eaMy* ;k lykgdkj lfefr] ftlesa is’kok ‘kkejko uhydaB] et+qenkj ds in ij ckyd`”.k iUr] lcuhl j?kqukFk cYyky vkSj lksuksiar nkfcj Fks] ds ek/;e ls tkxhj dks O;ofLFkr djus dk dke ‘kq: fd;k x;k A 1644 bZ- es f’kokth us viuh tkxhj dk dke Lo;a laHkky fy;k vkSj bl izdkj ‘kq: gqvk ,d NksVs lsbykds ds ‘kkld ds :i esa f’kokth dk thou A thtkckbZ dh izsj.kk ls gh f’kokth es Lora=rk ds izfr izxk<+ yxko o ckgjh ‘kfDr;ksa dh v/khurk ds fo:) izcy Hkkouk tkx`r gqbZ A

16 o”kZ dh vk;q esa gh mUgksusa ,d Lora= fgUnw jkT; dh LFkkiuk djus dk iz.k fy;k A dqN le; ckn mUgksaus rksj.k nqxZ ij vf/kdkj dj fy;k tks chtkiqj ds vUrxZr Fkk vkSj 1647 bZ- es dksaM.k o jktx<+ nqxZ Hkh gLrxr dj fy;s rFkk iq.ksa ds vklikl ds {ks= ij iw.kZ LokfeRo LFkkfir dj fy;k A ‘kh?kz gh mUgksusa if’peh ?kkV o dksad.k ds rVorhZ bykdksa ij Hkh vf/kdkj dj fy;k vkSj chtkiqj dh lsuk dks iqjUnj ds fudV ijkftr fd;k A 1659 bZ- es mudh chtkiqj ds izeq[k lsukuk;d vQ+ty [kka ls ,sfrgkfld HksaV gqbZ ftlds rqjUr ckn mUgksaus chtkiqj dh lsuk dks ijkLr fd;k vkSj iUgkyk fdys rd ds {ks= ij vf/kdkj dj fy;k A 1659 bZ- esa mUgksaus chtkiqjh lsuk dks dksYgkiqj ds fudV iqu% ijkLr fd;k A 1660 bZ- esa ;|fi os iUgkyk esa cqjh rjg f?kj x, Fks ijUrq os ogkWa ls cp fudys ¼izn’kZ la- 8½ vkSj dqN fnu ckn iUgkyk ij mudk iqu% vf/kdkj vkSj chtkiqj ds lkFk ;q)&fojke gks x;k A vxys nks o”kksZ esa mUgksaus xqfjYyk&;q)&iz.kkyh }kjk chtkiqj vkSj eqx+yksa ds vusd bykdksa ij vf/kdkj dj fy;k ijUrq 1661&1663 bZ- es vusd foftr bykds muds gkFk ls fudy x, vkSj 1665 bZ- esa f’kokth us fLFkfr dks ns[krs gq, vkSjaxts+c ds lqizfl) lsukuk;d vkesj ds egkjktk t;flag ds lkFk iqjUnj dh laf/k dj yh A ¼izn’kZ la[;k 14½ A os vkxjk tkus ds fy, Hkh rS;kj gks x, tgkWa mUgksaus eqx+y njckj esa vius xkSjoiw.kZ O;ogkj ls loZ lk/kkj.k dk eu eksg fy;k ¼12 ebZ 1666bZ-½ A os vkxjk ls vkSjaxts+c ds paxqy ls Hkkx fudys ¼izn’kZ la[;k 23½ A rhu o”kZ ckn 1670 bZ- esa ,d vR;Ur lQ+y vfHk;ku }kjk mUgksaus [kks, nqxZ iqu% izkIr dj fy, A

f’kokth dh ohjrkiw.kZ lHkh miyfC/k;kWa ;gkWa crkuk dfBu gS A vusd voljksa ij mUgksusa vksjks ds fy, cgknqjh] ‘kwjohjrk vkSj ln~xq.kksa ds mRd`”V mnkgj.k j[ks tSals mudh vQ+t+y [kkWa ds lkFk [k+rjukd HksaV ¼izn’kZ la[;k 7½ vFkok iq.ksa esa ‘kkbLrk[kkWa ij jkf=&vkØe.k ¼izn’kZ la[;k 10½] vkRe lEeku dh Hkkouk dk mnkgj.k tSlk mUgksaus eqx+y njckj esa vius xkSjoiw.kZ O;ogkj ls j[kk] vFkok mnkjrk dk tc mUgksaus ,d eqlyeku efgyk dks tks ;q) esa idM+h xbZ Fkh] lEeku iwoZd mlds ?kj fHktok fn;k ¼izn’kZ la- 13½] fouezrk dk tSlk muds lar rqdkjke vkSj leFkZ Lokeh jkenkl ds lkfu/; esa ifjyf{kr gksrk Fkk] vFkok iz’kklfud ;ksX;rk dk tks muds jkT; izcU/k ds ekSfyd fl)karks esa Li”V >ydrh Fkh] vkSj ,d vPNs fgUnw ‘kkld dk ftlds jkT; esa lHkh /keksZ o lEiznk;ksa ds yksxksa ds fy;s Lora=rk Fkh vkSj cjkcj dk lEeku izkIr Fkk A

1677 bZ- esa f’kokth dk d.kkZVd vfHk;ku ¼izn’kZ la- 50½ xksydq.Mk dh jkt/kkuh gSnjkckn esa mudk HkO;Lokx ¼izn’kZ la- 77½ mudk oSyksj igqaWpuk] 1674 bZ- esa N=ifr in xzg.k djuk] vusd vf/kdkfj;ksa ds inksa ds fy;s laLd`r dk iz;ksx] 400 ls vf/kd tgktksa ds csM+s dk fuekZ.k djuk] vkSj ;g rF; fd os ,d ek= fgUnw ‘kkld Fks tks u dsoy lQyrkiwoZd vkSjaxts+c ds fo:) yM+s] mUgksaus ,d cM+k jkT; Hkh LFkkfir dj fy;k] vkSj ;g lc mUgksaus viuh ;ksX;rk o cycwrs ij fd;k & ;s lc ,slh miyfC/k;ka gS tks vkt Hkh gekjs fy, izsj.kk dk L=ksr o ekxZn’kZd cu ldrh gS A mudk vR;Ur lQy vkSj vlk/kkj.k miyfC/k;ksa ls iw.kZ thou 13 vizsy 1680 bZ- dks ejkBk jkT; dh jkt/kkuh jk;x<+ esa muds LoxZokl ds lkFk lekIr gks x;k A

f’kokth us vusd u, nqxZ cuok, vkSj vusd nqxksZ dh ejEer djokbZ] jktLo O;oLFkk dks rdZ laxr cuk;k vkSj v”Biz/kku ds izR;sd ea=h dks fuf’pr ftEesnkjh lksaidj ,d vkn’kZ ‘kklu O;oLFkk LFkkfir dh A os le; ls cgqr vkxs Fks vkSj nwjnz”Vk Fks A mudk O;fDrxr thou cgqr lkQ lqFkjk Fkk vkSj mues mPp dksfV ds uSfrd xq.k Fks A dkykUrj es f’kokth ds ^^fgUnoh LojkT;** dk izHkko {ks= mRrj&if’pe esa vVd ¼vc ikfdLrku esa½ o iwoZ esa dVd rd QSy x;k vkSj ejkBs Hkkjr dh lokZf/kd ‘kfDr’kkyh ‘kfDr cu x, A f’kokth o muds iq= ‘kaHkkth ds ckn is’okvksa vkSj f’kans] gksydj] xk;dokM+ vkfn vU; ejkBk ljnkjks ds usr`Ro es ejkBk la?k dk vHkwriwoZ foLrkj gqvk A

gesa vk’kk gS fd vkidks ;g izn’kZuh ns[kus esa vkuUn dk vuqHko gqvk gksxk vkSj bldh Le`fr vkids o vkids ifjokj o cPpks ds fy, izsj.kk dk L=ksr jgsxh rFkk nSfud thou esa lkgl] fgEer] ekr`Hkwfe ds izfr leiZ.k dh Hkkouk o lsok Hkko dks izLQqfVr o iYyfor djrh jgsxh ftlls fd Hkkjr iqu% xkSjo ds f’k[kj ij igqWaps vkSj vki N=ifr f’kokth egkjkt ds xq.kksa dks vkRelkr dj lgh ek;us esa orZeku Hkkjr ds f’kokth cusa A





A Hero for Modern India Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj

24 02 2008

vk/kqfud Hkkjr ds fy;s vkn’kZ egk uk;d N=ifr f’kokth egkjkt

^^D;k f’kokth ls Hkh c<+dj egkuk;d] muls Js”V HkDr vFkok ‘kkld gks ldrk gS\ f’kokth gekjs egku~ egkdkO;ksa ds tuekul esa izfrf”Br pfj=ksa ds leku Fks A os Hkkjrekrk ds vkn’kZ iq= vkSj jk”Vªh; psruk ds fo’kq) izfrfcEc Fks A mUgksaus yksxksa dks ;g crk;k fd vkus okys le; esa] tYn ;k nsj ls Hkh Hkkjr dk Lo:i D;k gksxk & ,d dsUnzh; ‘kfDr ds vUrxZr Lora= bdkbZ;ksa dk la?k**& Lokeh foosdkuUn

bl iznf’kZuh ds ek/;e ls Hkkjr ds bfrgkl esa f’kokth ds fof’k”B LFkku dks n’kkZus dk iz;kl fd;k x;k gS A ;g og le; Fkk tc fgUnqvksa ij ?kksj vR;kpkj gks jgs Fks] mUgsa vius gh ns’k esa vieku lguk iM+ jgk Fkk] mudh fL=;ksa dh lqj{kk lqfuf’pr ugh Fkh] mUgs xqyke cuk;k tk jgk Fkk] muds eafnj rksM+s tk jgs Fks] muds lkFk vusd izdkj dk HksnHkko cjrk tk jgk Fkk] muds /kkfeZd ioksZ o R;kSgkjksa ij ikcUnh yxk nh xbZ Fkh] eqx+y ‘kklu dh fgUnqvksa dks eqlyeku cukus dh uhfr ij [kqydj vey gks jgk Fkk] mu ij /kkfeZd dj ftft+;k yxk fn;k x;k Fkk vkSj ;g lc dqN gksrs gq, Hkh bldk [kqydj fojks/k djus dk dksbZ lkgl ugh tqVk ik jgk Fkk] tcfd ns’k esa fgUnqvksa dh la[;k 90% ls Hkh vf/kd Fkh A

,sls fodV le; esa f’kokth us] ftuesa vn~Hkqr ;ksX;rk vkSj nwjnf’kZrk Fkh] bl vU;k; iw.kZ O;ogkj ds fo:) la?k”kZ djus dk chM+k mBk;k ¼izn’kZ la- 3½ A f’kokth dk ,slk vn~Hkqr O;fDrRo Fkk fd lHkh NksVs&cM+s] lSfud&vlSfud] ifjfpr&vifjfpr muds iz’kald cu tkrs Fks vkSj muesa f’kokth ds izfr fu”Bk Lor% gh tkx`r gks tkrh Fkh A ^^LojkT;** LFkkfir djus ds vius dfBu mn~ns’; ds fy, mUgsa viuh ekrk thtkckbZ o larks ls izsj.kk izkIr gqbZ Fkh] ijUrq blds fy;s ;g vko’;d Fkk fd os fgUnqvksa dh lqIr vkRek o [kks, fo’okl dks txkosa vkSj mUgsa fn[kknsa fd eqx+yksa dh ‘kfDr dk lQyrkiwoZd izfrjks/k fd;k tk ldrk gS vkSj fonsf’k;ksa ds izHkqRo o eqfLye ‘kfDr;ksa ds fu;a=.k ls eqfDr gkfly dh tk ldrh gS A

f’kokth dks eqx+y ckn’kkgksa esa lcls ;ksX; ijUrq lkFk gh lcls dqfVy ‘kkld ls VDdj ysuh iM+h A bl izn’kZuh esa jax&fp=ksa] Ldsp] js[kkfp=ksa] ledkyhu nLrkost+kas o mu ij vk/kkfjr ys[kksaa ds ek/;e ls f’kokth dh Hkkjrh; bfrgkl esa vf}rh; Hkwfedk n’kkZus dk iz;Ru fd;k x;k gS vkSj og Hkwfedk Hkh ,sls le; esa Fkh tc os vdsys gh mu fouk’kdkjh izo`fRr;ksa ds f[kykQ tqV x, ftudk mn~ns’; Hkkjr dh lH;rk vkSj vk/;kfRedrk dks lnSo ds fy, feVk nsuk Fkk A okLro esa f’kokth dks gh bl ckr dk Js; tkrk gS fd if’peh o nf{k.k Hkkjr viuh igpku cpk ik, vkSj ejkBh o rkfey nksuksa gh bl ckr ds fy;s f’kokth o muds lSfudksa ds cfynku ds _.kh gS ftudh otg ls mudh le`) lkekftd] lkaLd`frd o /kkfeZd ijEijk,Wa cp ldha A mRrjh Hkkjr ds cM+s Hkkx ds ckjs esa ;g ckr ugha dgh tk ldrh tgkW 7oha&8oha ‘krkCnh esa vjc ns’k esa fu/kkZfjr ‘kfjvr ds funsZ’kksa dks Hkkjr esa 17 oha ‘krkCnh esa Fkksius dk iz;kl ,d ,sls ckn’kkg }kjk fd;k x;k tks blds n’kZu vkSj fl)kUrksa dk v{kj{k ikyu djus esa gh viuk /keZ ekurk Fkk A

;g izn’kZuh bl dkj.k Hkh le;ksfpr gS D;ksafd f’kokth esa os lc xq.k Fks tks bDdhloha ‘krkCnh ds Hkkjr es jktusrkvksa esa gksus pkfg;sa] vkSj ftudk vusd ckj muesa vHkko fn[kkbZ nsrk gS A f’kokth U;k;fiz;] nz.k fu’p;h vkSj fucZyksa ds j{kd Fks A os ;ksX; o bZekunkj iz’kkld Fks] os ‘k=q ds lkeus >qdus ds ctk; mldk lkeuk djrs Fks] os Hkkjr ekrk ds ije HkDr Fks] ftlesa mUgsa ekWa Hkokuh dk vkHkkl gksrk Fkk ¼izn’kZ la- 5½] os ‘k=q ds lkFk dBksj Fks ijUrq vU; ds lkFk] fo’ks”kdj fL=;ksa o cPpks ds izfr cgqr lân; Fks] os ladh.kZ /kkfeZd Hkkouk ls xzflr ugh Fks cfYd nksuks gh /keksZ ds lUrksa ds n’kZu ds fy, tkrs Fks vkSj fcuk fdlh HksnHkko ds efUnjks o efLtnksa ds j[kj[kko ds fy;s leqfpr O;oLFkk djrs Fks A

Hkkjr ds bl vuU; tu uk;d ds thou ds ckjs esa ;g izn’kZuh eqEcbZ QsDV }kjk vk;ksftr dh tk jgh gS A QsDV laLFkk u gh jktuhfr vkSj u gh fdlh /keZ vFkok xqV ls tqM+h gS A izkFkZuk gS fd f’kokth dh Hkkouk o ifo= vkRek iqu% Hkkjr esa Iyoeku gks vkSj ns’k dh mlds ‘k=qvksa ls j{kk djsa A

f’kokth dk tUe 10 vizy 1627 bZ- dks f’kousfj nqxZ ¼iq.ks ls 60 fdeh- mRrj½ esa gqvk Fkk A muds firk ‘kkgth Hkksalys o ekrk thtkckbZ us mudk uke f’kokth j[kk D;ksafd iq= izkfIr ds fy, mUgksaus LFkkuh; nsoh f’kokbZ ls izkFkZuk dh Fkh A ‘kkgth igys vgen uxj o ckn esa chtkiqj esa cM+s lkeUr jgs Fks A mudh tkxhj esa iwuk o caxyksj vkfn Fks A f’kokth o thtkckbZ iwuk dh tkxhj dh O;oLFkk laHkkyus ;gka vk x, A

vkjEHk esa ,d NksVs ls ^eaf=eaMy* ;k lykgdkj lfefr] ftlesa is’kok ‘kkejko uhydaB] et+qenkj ds in ij ckyd`”.k iUr] lcuhl j?kqukFk cYyky vkSj lksuksiar nkfcj Fks] ds ek/;e ls tkxhj dks O;ofLFkr djus dk dke ‘kq: fd;k x;k A 1644 bZ- es f’kokth us viuh tkxhj dk dke Lo;a laHkky fy;k vkSj bl izdkj ‘kq: gqvk ,d NksVs lsbykds ds ‘kkld ds :i esa f’kokth dk thou A thtkckbZ dh izsj.kk ls gh f’kokth es Lora=rk ds izfr izxk<+ yxko o ckgjh ‘kfDr;ksa dh v/khurk ds fo:) izcy Hkkouk tkx`r gqbZ A

16 o”kZ dh vk;q esa gh mUgksusa ,d Lora= fgUnw jkT; dh LFkkiuk djus dk iz.k fy;k A dqN le; ckn mUgksaus rksj.k nqxZ ij vf/kdkj dj fy;k tks chtkiqj ds vUrxZr Fkk vkSj 1647 bZ- es dksaM.k o jktx<+ nqxZ Hkh gLrxr dj fy;s rFkk iq.ksa ds vklikl ds {ks= ij iw.kZ LokfeRo LFkkfir dj fy;k A ‘kh?kz gh mUgksusa if’peh ?kkV o dksad.k ds rVorhZ bykdksa ij Hkh vf/kdkj dj fy;k vkSj chtkiqj dh lsuk dks iqjUnj ds fudV ijkftr fd;k A 1659 bZ- es mudh chtkiqj ds izeq[k lsukuk;d vQ+ty [kka ls ,sfrgkfld HksaV gqbZ ftlds rqjUr ckn mUgksaus chtkiqj dh lsuk dks ijkLr fd;k vkSj iUgkyk fdys rd ds {ks= ij vf/kdkj dj fy;k A 1659 bZ- esa mUgksaus chtkiqjh lsuk dks dksYgkiqj ds fudV iqu% ijkLr fd;k A 1660 bZ- esa ;|fi os iUgkyk esa cqjh rjg f?kj x, Fks ijUrq os ogkWa ls cp fudys ¼izn’kZ la- 8½ vkSj dqN fnu ckn iUgkyk ij mudk iqu% vf/kdkj vkSj chtkiqj ds lkFk ;q)&fojke gks x;k A vxys nks o”kksZ esa mUgksaus xqfjYyk&;q)&iz.kkyh }kjk chtkiqj vkSj eqx+yksa ds vusd bykdksa ij vf/kdkj dj fy;k ijUrq 1661&1663 bZ- es vusd foftr bykds muds gkFk ls fudy x, vkSj 1665 bZ- esa f’kokth us fLFkfr dks ns[krs gq, vkSjaxts+c ds lqizfl) lsukuk;d vkesj ds egkjktk t;flag ds lkFk iqjUnj dh laf/k dj yh A ¼izn’kZ la[;k 14½ A os vkxjk tkus ds fy, Hkh rS;kj gks x, tgkWa mUgksaus eqx+y njckj esa vius xkSjoiw.kZ O;ogkj ls loZ lk/kkj.k dk eu eksg fy;k ¼12 ebZ 1666bZ-½ A os vkxjk ls vkSjaxts+c ds paxqy ls Hkkx fudys ¼izn’kZ la[;k 23½ A rhu o”kZ ckn 1670 bZ- esa ,d vR;Ur lQ+y vfHk;ku }kjk mUgksaus [kks, nqxZ iqu% izkIr dj fy, A

f’kokth dh ohjrkiw.kZ lHkh miyfC/k;kWa ;gkWa crkuk dfBu gS A vusd voljksa ij mUgksusa vksjks ds fy, cgknqjh] ‘kwjohjrk vkSj ln~xq.kksa ds mRd`”V mnkgj.k j[ks tSals mudh vQ+t+y [kkWa ds lkFk [k+rjukd HksaV ¼izn’kZ la[;k 7½ vFkok iq.ksa esa ‘kkbLrk[kkWa ij jkf=&vkØe.k ¼izn’kZ la[;k 10½] vkRe lEeku dh Hkkouk dk mnkgj.k tSlk mUgksaus eqx+y njckj esa vius xkSjoiw.kZ O;ogkj ls j[kk] vFkok mnkjrk dk tc mUgksaus ,d eqlyeku efgyk dks tks ;q) esa idM+h xbZ Fkh] lEeku iwoZd mlds ?kj fHktok fn;k ¼izn’kZ la- 13½] fouezrk dk tSlk muds lar rqdkjke vkSj leFkZ Lokeh jkenkl ds lkfu/; esa ifjyf{kr gksrk Fkk] vFkok iz’kklfud ;ksX;rk dk tks muds jkT; izcU/k ds ekSfyd fl)karks esa Li”V >ydrh Fkh] vkSj ,d vPNs fgUnw ‘kkld dk ftlds jkT; esa lHkh /keksZ o lEiznk;ksa ds yksxksa ds fy;s Lora=rk Fkh vkSj cjkcj dk lEeku izkIr Fkk A

1677 bZ- esa f’kokth dk d.kkZVd vfHk;ku ¼izn’kZ la- 50½ xksydq.Mk dh jkt/kkuh gSnjkckn esa mudk HkO;Lokx ¼izn’kZ la- 77½ mudk oSyksj igqaWpuk] 1674 bZ- esa N=ifr in xzg.k djuk] vusd vf/kdkfj;ksa ds inksa ds fy;s laLd`r dk iz;ksx] 400 ls vf/kd tgktksa ds csM+s dk fuekZ.k djuk] vkSj ;g rF; fd os ,d ek= fgUnw ‘kkld Fks tks u dsoy lQyrkiwoZd vkSjaxts+c ds fo:) yM+s] mUgksaus ,d cM+k jkT; Hkh LFkkfir dj fy;k] vkSj ;g lc mUgksaus viuh ;ksX;rk o cycwrs ij fd;k & ;s lc ,slh miyfC/k;ka gS tks vkt Hkh gekjs fy, izsj.kk dk L=ksr o ekxZn’kZd cu ldrh gS A mudk vR;Ur lQy vkSj vlk/kkj.k miyfC/k;ksa ls iw.kZ thou 13 vizsy 1680 bZ- dks ejkBk jkT; dh jkt/kkuh jk;x<+ esa muds LoxZokl ds lkFk lekIr gks x;k A

f’kokth us vusd u, nqxZ cuok, vkSj vusd nqxksZ dh ejEer djokbZ] jktLo O;oLFkk dks rdZ laxr cuk;k vkSj v”Biz/kku ds izR;sd ea=h dks fuf’pr ftEesnkjh lksaidj ,d vkn’kZ ‘kklu O;oLFkk LFkkfir dh A os le; ls cgqr vkxs Fks vkSj nwjnz”Vk Fks A mudk O;fDrxr thou cgqr lkQ lqFkjk Fkk vkSj mues mPp dksfV ds uSfrd xq.k Fks A dkykUrj es f’kokth ds ^^fgUnoh LojkT;** dk izHkko {ks= mRrj&if’pe esa vVd ¼vc ikfdLrku esa½ o iwoZ esa dVd rd QSy x;k vkSj ejkBs Hkkjr dh lokZf/kd ‘kfDr’kkyh ‘kfDr cu x, A f’kokth o muds iq= ‘kaHkkth ds ckn is’okvksa vkSj f’kans] gksydj] xk;dokM+ vkfn vU; ejkBk ljnkjks ds usr`Ro es ejkBk la?k dk vHkwriwoZ foLrkj gqvk A

gesa vk’kk gS fd vkidks ;g izn’kZuh ns[kus esa vkuUn dk vuqHko gqvk gksxk vkSj bldh Le`fr vkids o vkids ifjokj o cPpks ds fy, izsj.kk dk L=ksr jgsxh rFkk nSfud thou esa lkgl] fgEer] ekr`Hkwfe ds izfr leiZ.k dh Hkkouk o lsok Hkko dks izLQqfVr o iYyfor djrh jgsxh ftlls fd Hkkjr iqu% xkSjo ds f’k[kj ij igqWaps vkSj vki N=ifr f’kokth egkjkt ds xq.kksa dks vkRelkr dj lgh ek;us esa orZeku Hkkjr ds f’kokth cusa A





The Naxalsim menace

19 02 2008

The RED Terror

A PROJECT ON NAXALITES

FACT India has commissioned a new exhibition on Maoist Terrorism, what the PM of India says as “the single largest threat to India” naxalism.

The Exhibition features the Maoist, leftwing Ultras the problem of what has come to be known as Naxalism a movement which started off as a small uprising of people in Naxalbari an unknown village in west bengal to a blodywar that lost its ideology.

The objective is to portray the sufferings and danger that the leftwing ultras, Naxalism is bringing to the people of India. The unity and sovereignty of India needs to be protected. The fact that gun can never be the only solution needs to be highlighted. Socio-economic development can be an effective solution along with a strategy for maintaining Law and Order. The efforts of Non Governmental organisations in disarming people with dangerous violent ideologies is an important factor. The ancient techniques such as pranayama can also help to bring this people around, as a few spiritual organizations have already proved… for example the Art of Living Foundation. There is a subtle manner the Naxalites operate in extremely poor areas exploiting the poverty, ignorance and lack of governmental presence.

The exhibition will :

1) demonstrate graphically and with statistics the widespread presence of Naxalites in India (along with a brief on how they may link to Maoists in Nepal) and

2) What we can do/what has already been done to bring them around.

We plan to do this project in three stages:

1) A travelling exhibition with about 40 panels with captions and text blended with photographs realtime and the statistical analysis.

  1. A film, which will be shown during the exhibition and can be made into a documentary for television channels

  2. If both these are successful, we can envision doing a book on Naxalites with text and photos, whose angle will be historical and academic and that will aim at becoming the reference book for journalists/academics on Naxalism. Book will have to be funded by a publisher.

Format of the exhibition

1) Statistics

2) photos showing havoc created by Naxalites (recent, attack on innocent civilians like the one on marraige party CPRF camp in UP, escape from jail etc)

3) portraits of famous/notorious naxalites/most wanted

4) A history of Naxalism

5) film/archives footage on naxalites and on regions where they operate (AP, UP, Bihar etc)

6) A detailed brief on firearms/explosives they employ and how they procure them

7) The red corridor (dandakaranya), from Nepal to Tamil Nadu.

How you could also help behind the scenes:

  1. Volunteer for the cause

  2. Help us to generate high publicity inaugurations

  3. Help us Spread the word

  4. Contribute to the cause in cash / kind

The estimated budget of the project. Rs 700,000/-

Here we have been working on a series of issues on Naxalism and the havoc it has created over the years on the Indian populace.

Naxalism: A threat to the Unified Nation of India

“Its (Maoism’s) purpose is to destroy an existing society and its institutions and to replace them with a completely new structure.”

– Mao Tse-Tung

Maoism a.k.a Naxalism

Naxalism is flourishing in a vacuum created by the total inadequacy of administrative, political and social institutions in certain areas. Issues related to land-reforms, education, health, hygiene, etc have remained un-addressed since hundreds of years.

Well-educated Naxalite leaders have taken advantage of the grave dissatisfaction among the poor and uneducated population by offering them an alternative way to growth and development.

The Genesis

The Naxal Movement began as a violent peasant uprising against the landlords at Naxalbari village, West Bengal on 25th May, 1967.

It began under the leadership of revolutionary communists Charu Mazumdar and Kanu Sanyal. On 22nd April, 1969, they formed the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist).

Above: 9th Unity Congress, January, 2007.

The Present Day

Today, there are many Maoist parties and organizations that either predate the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) or emerged from factions when the CPI-ML split after the death of Charu Mazumdar.

Communist Party of India (Maoist) is the largest Maoist rebel group with operations in over 9 states and strong relations with Nepal’s Maoists.

Article 19 of its Party Constitution clearly states: “Every member must be ready to participate and play a vanguard role in class struggle in the form of armed agrarian revolutionary war.”

The Naxal Havoc

Chhattisgarh

15th March, 2007

Maoist rebels massacred 16 officers of the Chhattisgarh Armed Force (CAF), 39 Special Police Officers (SPO’s) and injured 12 others at the Rani Bodli village.

Around 500 rebels attacked the camp, throwing grenades and petrol bombs and shooting people fleeing the burning buildings before escaping with weapons and explosives.

16th December, 2007

In a daring jailbreak, 299 prisoners including 110 naxalites escaped from the Dantewada Jail in Chhattisgarh. The naxals also snatched 6 rifles and a wireless set from the guards before they fled.

Jharkhand

27th October, 2007

Armed naxals massacred 17 people including a former Jharkhand chief minister’s son in the Chilkhari village of the state’s Giridih district.

Bihar

13th November, 2005

200 naxalites attacked the Jehanabad Jail, freed their comrades and assassinated leaders of the Ranvir Sena, the upper-caste militia. More than 300 prisoners made use of the opportunity to escape as the jail was under Maoist’s control for almost two hours.

Orissa

8th February, 2008

300 rebels, including 100 women, gunned down 6 policemen at a police reserve which houses an armoury, 4 others at a training school and 2 at Nayagarh police station in the heart of the town.

The naxals also took away over 1,200 state-of-the art firearms including 298 number of 303 rifles, 130 SLR rifles, 30 AK-47 rifles, 300 Insas rifles, 80 9-mm pistols, 203 escart rifles, and 1 lakh live bullets.

The rebels were within striking distance of the state capital, Bhubaneshwar, which is barely 100 km away.

The Naxal Havoc

Maharashtra

A 40 Sq. km area on the Maharashtra-Chhattisgarh border is considered a `Liberated Zone’ where even the police do not venture. There are around 25 villages in this zone. Naxalites hold military training camps here and even run an arms factory and a printing press.

16 of India’s 33 states have Maoists operating in them. This now affects 192 of India’s 602 districts.

The year gone by…

In 2007, till the end of November…

There were 1385 incidents of naxalite violence.

214 police personnel have been killed.

418 civilians have been killed.

Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand together accounted for 68.16% of the total incidents and 76.42% of the total casualties.

The year saw an increased use of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) and Landmines by naxalites.

Naxal attacks on police and police establishments, killings of innocents and attacks on infrastructure (like rail and road transport and power transmission) continued to be reported.

The Declaration

1. Coordinate the people’s war with the ongoing armed struggles of the various oppressed nationalities in Kashmir, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur and other parts of the Northeast.

2. Build a broad UF (United Front) of all secular forces and persecuted religious minorities such as Muslims, Christians and Sikhs.

3. Build a secret party apparatus which is impregnable to the enemy’s attacks.

4. Build open and secret mass organisations amongst the workers, peasants, youth, students, women and other sections of the people.

5. Build the people’s militia in all the villages in the guerrilla zones as the base force of the PGA (People’s Guerrilla Army). Also build armed self-defence units in other areas of class struggle as well as in the urban areas.

The Future

“Taking the trends of the last five years, we can build a model of the security scenario for the year 2010. Over 260 districts, nearly half of India, would be Naxal affected where the government’s writ hardly runs.”

– Ajit Doval, Former Director, Intelligence Bureau

“The next ten to twenty years will witness massive political and social upheavals… Militant confrontation between the people and the state will become a general feature throughout the country”

– Muppala Lakshmana Rao, General Secretary, CPI (Maoist)

Links & Support

“Available reports suggest the continued fraternal and logistic (non-strategic) links between Communist Party of Nepal (Maoists) and Indian Naxal groups.”

– Sriprakash Jaiswal, Minister of State for Home Affairs

“(We will) turn the Countries of South Asia into a Strong Bastion of World Revolution!”
– Coordination Committee of Maoist Parties and Organizations of South Asia (CCOMPOSA), a coalition of 13 extreme-left parties of South-Asia

“Times have changed, and the CPI-ML (Liberation) has fielded as many as nine candidates in north Bengal this year.”—– Abhijit Mazumdar, son of CPI-ML co-founder Charu Mazumdar

Information sources:
www.naxalwatch.blogspot.com
www.satp.org
www.naxalrage.org
www.globalsecurity.org
www.india-defence.com
www.fas.org/
www.achrweb.org
www.mha.nic.in

FACT India field study
News papers

FACT India is a Registered Trust. Contributions are welcome and are exempt under Section 80 G of the IT Act. Please make cheques in favour of “FACT”.

FACT India
41, Jor Bagh, New Delhi 110 003, India.
Web.: www.fact-india.com





The Naxalsim menace

19 02 2008

The RED Terror

A PROJECT ON NAXALITES

FACT India has commissioned a new exhibition on Maoist Terrorism, what the PM of India says as “the single largest threat to India” naxalism.

The Exhibition features the Maoist, leftwing Ultras the problem of what has come to be known as Naxalism a movement which started off as a small uprising of people in Naxalbari an unknown village in west bengal to a blodywar that lost its ideology.

The objective is to portray the sufferings and danger that the leftwing ultras, Naxalism is bringing to the people of India. The unity and sovereignty of India needs to be protected. The fact that gun can never be the only solution needs to be highlighted. Socio-economic development can be an effective solution along with a strategy for maintaining Law and Order. The efforts of Non Governmental organisations in disarming people with dangerous violent ideologies is an important factor. The ancient techniques such as pranayama can also help to bring this people around, as a few spiritual organizations have already proved… for example the Art of Living Foundation. There is a subtle manner the Naxalites operate in extremely poor areas exploiting the poverty, ignorance and lack of governmental presence.

The exhibition will :

1) demonstrate graphically and with statistics the widespread presence of Naxalites in India (along with a brief on how they may link to Maoists in Nepal) and

2) What we can do/what has already been done to bring them around.

We plan to do this project in three stages:

1) A travelling exhibition with about 40 panels with captions and text blended with photographs realtime and the statistical analysis.

  1. A film, which will be shown during the exhibition and can be made into a documentary for television channels

  2. If both these are successful, we can envision doing a book on Naxalites with text and photos, whose angle will be historical and academic and that will aim at becoming the reference book for journalists/academics on Naxalism. Book will have to be funded by a publisher.

Format of the exhibition

1) Statistics

2) photos showing havoc created by Naxalites (recent, attack on innocent civilians like the one on marraige party CPRF camp in UP, escape from jail etc)

3) portraits of famous/notorious naxalites/most wanted

4) A history of Naxalism

5) film/archives footage on naxalites and on regions where they operate (AP, UP, Bihar etc)

6) A detailed brief on firearms/explosives they employ and how they procure them

7) The red corridor (dandakaranya), from Nepal to Tamil Nadu.

How you could also help behind the scenes:

  1. Volunteer for the cause

  2. Help us to generate high publicity inaugurations

  3. Help us Spread the word

  4. Contribute to the cause in cash / kind

The estimated budget of the project. Rs 700,000/-

Here we have been working on a series of issues on Naxalism and the havoc it has created over the years on the Indian populace.

Naxalism: A threat to the Unified Nation of India

“Its (Maoism’s) purpose is to destroy an existing society and its institutions and to replace them with a completely new structure.”

– Mao Tse-Tung

Maoism a.k.a Naxalism

Naxalism is flourishing in a vacuum created by the total inadequacy of administrative, political and social institutions in certain areas. Issues related to land-reforms, education, health, hygiene, etc have remained un-addressed since hundreds of years.

Well-educated Naxalite leaders have taken advantage of the grave dissatisfaction among the poor and uneducated population by offering them an alternative way to growth and development.

The Genesis

The Naxal Movement began as a violent peasant uprising against the landlords at Naxalbari village, West Bengal on 25th May, 1967.

It began under the leadership of revolutionary communists Charu Mazumdar and Kanu Sanyal. On 22nd April, 1969, they formed the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist).

Above: 9th Unity Congress, January, 2007.

The Present Day

Today, there are many Maoist parties and organizations that either predate the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) or emerged from factions when the CPI-ML split after the death of Charu Mazumdar.

Communist Party of India (Maoist) is the largest Maoist rebel group with operations in over 9 states and strong relations with Nepal’s Maoists.

Article 19 of its Party Constitution clearly states: “Every member must be ready to participate and play a vanguard role in class struggle in the form of armed agrarian revolutionary war.”

The Naxal Havoc

Chhattisgarh

15th March, 2007

Maoist rebels massacred 16 officers of the Chhattisgarh Armed Force (CAF), 39 Special Police Officers (SPO’s) and injured 12 others at the Rani Bodli village.

Around 500 rebels attacked the camp, throwing grenades and petrol bombs and shooting people fleeing the burning buildings before escaping with weapons and explosives.

16th December, 2007

In a daring jailbreak, 299 prisoners including 110 naxalites escaped from the Dantewada Jail in Chhattisgarh. The naxals also snatched 6 rifles and a wireless set from the guards before they fled.

Jharkhand

27th October, 2007

Armed naxals massacred 17 people including a former Jharkhand chief minister’s son in the Chilkhari village of the state’s Giridih district.

Bihar

13th November, 2005

200 naxalites attacked the Jehanabad Jail, freed their comrades and assassinated leaders of the Ranvir Sena, the upper-caste militia. More than 300 prisoners made use of the opportunity to escape as the jail was under Maoist’s control for almost two hours.

Orissa

8th February, 2008

300 rebels, including 100 women, gunned down 6 policemen at a police reserve which houses an armoury, 4 others at a training school and 2 at Nayagarh police station in the heart of the town.

The naxals also took away over 1,200 state-of-the art firearms including 298 number of 303 rifles, 130 SLR rifles, 30 AK-47 rifles, 300 Insas rifles, 80 9-mm pistols, 203 escart rifles, and 1 lakh live bullets.

The rebels were within striking distance of the state capital, Bhubaneshwar, which is barely 100 km away.

The Naxal Havoc

Maharashtra

A 40 Sq. km area on the Maharashtra-Chhattisgarh border is considered a `Liberated Zone’ where even the police do not venture. There are around 25 villages in this zone. Naxalites hold military training camps here and even run an arms factory and a printing press.

16 of India’s 33 states have Maoists operating in them. This now affects 192 of India’s 602 districts.

The year gone by…

In 2007, till the end of November…

There were 1385 incidents of naxalite violence.

214 police personnel have been killed.

418 civilians have been killed.

Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand together accounted for 68.16% of the total incidents and 76.42% of the total casualties.

The year saw an increased use of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) and Landmines by naxalites.

Naxal attacks on police and police establishments, killings of innocents and attacks on infrastructure (like rail and road transport and power transmission) continued to be reported.

The Declaration

1. Coordinate the people’s war with the ongoing armed struggles of the various oppressed nationalities in Kashmir, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur and other parts of the Northeast.

2. Build a broad UF (United Front) of all secular forces and persecuted religious minorities such as Muslims, Christians and Sikhs.

3. Build a secret party apparatus which is impregnable to the enemy’s attacks.

4. Build open and secret mass organisations amongst the workers, peasants, youth, students, women and other sections of the people.

5. Build the people’s militia in all the villages in the guerrilla zones as the base force of the PGA (People’s Guerrilla Army). Also build armed self-defence units in other areas of class struggle as well as in the urban areas.

The Future

“Taking the trends of the last five years, we can build a model of the security scenario for the year 2010. Over 260 districts, nearly half of India, would be Naxal affected where the government’s writ hardly runs.”

– Ajit Doval, Former Director, Intelligence Bureau

“The next ten to twenty years will witness massive political and social upheavals… Militant confrontation between the people and the state will become a general feature throughout the country”

– Muppala Lakshmana Rao, General Secretary, CPI (Maoist)

Links & Support

“Available reports suggest the continued fraternal and logistic (non-strategic) links between Communist Party of Nepal (Maoists) and Indian Naxal groups.”

– Sriprakash Jaiswal, Minister of State for Home Affairs

“(We will) turn the Countries of South Asia into a Strong Bastion of World Revolution!”
– Coordination Committee of Maoist Parties and Organizations of South Asia (CCOMPOSA), a coalition of 13 extreme-left parties of South-Asia

“Times have changed, and the CPI-ML (Liberation) has fielded as many as nine candidates in north Bengal this year.”—– Abhijit Mazumdar, son of CPI-ML co-founder Charu Mazumdar

Information sources:
www.naxalwatch.blogspot.com
www.satp.org
www.naxalrage.org
www.globalsecurity.org
www.india-defence.com
www.fas.org/
www.achrweb.org
www.mha.nic.in

FACT India field study
News papers

FACT India is a Registered Trust. Contributions are welcome and are exempt under Section 80 G of the IT Act. Please make cheques in favour of “FACT”.

FACT India
41, Jor Bagh, New Delhi 110 003, India.
Web.: www.fact-india.com





The RED Terror:: A PROJECT ON NAXALITES

19 02 2008

The RED Terror

A PROJECT ON NAXALITES

The objective is to portray the danger that Naxalism is bringing to the unified nation of India. At the same time, we want to show that the gun is not only solution. Development and the Soci-economic that ancient techniques such as pranayama can help to bring this people around, as a few spiritual organizations have already proved… for example the Art of Living Foundation. We also have to highlight in a subtle manner the fact that Naxalites operate in extremely poor areas.

The exhibition will : 1) demonstrate graphically and with statistics the widespread presence of Naxalites in India (along with a brief on how they may link to Maoists in Nepal) and 2) What we can do/what has already been done to bring them around.

We plan to do this project in three stages: 1) A travelling exhibition with about 40 panels with captions and text printed on high quality photo paper which can design/ print either in Delhi or in Auroville

  1. A film, if you are ready to fund it, which will be shown during the exhibition and can be made into a documentary for television channels

  2. If both these are successful, we can envision doing a book on Naxalites with text and photos, whose angle will be historical and academic and that will aim at becoming the reference book for journalists/academics on Naxalism. Book will have to be funded by a publisher.

What we need from you

1) Statistics

2) photos showing havoc created by Naxalites (if possible recent, like attack on CPRF camp in UP, escape from jail etc)

3) portraits of famous naxalites/founders/most wanted

4) A history of Naxalism (if possible), otherwise we will do our own research

5) film/archives footage on naxalites if we are doing the film and on regions where they operate (AP, UP, Bihar etc)

6) A detailed brief on firearms/explosives they employ and how they procure them (if any outside help give, please mention)

7) Something about the red corridor (dandakaranya) that the Maoists talk about, from Nepal to Tamil Nadu.

How you could also help behind the scenes:

  1. Get us space for exhibit in metro cities either in Government-owned cultural centers, or in public places such as IIC in Delhi

  2. Help us to generate high publicity inaugurations

  3. Once you approve film, help us to distribute it/screen it on doordarshan or other private channels and eventually send it abroad to documentary festivals

IT IS UNDERSTOOD THAT FACT INDIA WILL BE THE SOLE BEARER AND ORGANIZER OF THIS EXHIBITION/FILM/BOOK AND THAT GOI’S NAME WILL APPEAR NOWHERE

B. BUDGET FOR EXHIBITION

1. Exhibition

I.

40 panels on an average @ Rs.5000/-

TWO LAKHS

II

Graphic design. 50 hours@2000 Rs

100.000 Rs

III

Miscellaneous charges: transport, hotel, restaurant, Xerox, courier

50.000 Rs

TOTAL: 350.000 RUPEES

2. Film

I.

Film Studio. 100 hours@1000 Rs an hour

100.000 Rs

II

Filming extra footage 10 hours @4000 Rs

40.000 Rs

III

Miscellaneous charges: transport, hotel, restaurant, Xerox, courier

50.000 Rs

TOTAL: 190.000 RUPEES





Sikhs: The defeners of Indian Dharma.

14 02 2008

The video of Sikh Exhibition held at Banglasahib Gurudwara.
Sikhs: The defeners of Indian Dharma.